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How does the experience of the justice system affect their self-esteem?



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In Spain, 11% of women over the age of 16 have been physically abused by their partner or former partner at some point in their lives. 8.9% had experienced sexual violence, and 31.9% reported experiencing psychological violence. An overwhelming percentage of these women (over 80% in all three categories) say that the episodes have recurred more than once.

These figures are taken from the 2019 Macro Survey of Violence Against Women conducted by the Ministry of Equality of the Spanish government. After going through this experience, some of these women face another process that can be just as painful: reporting the abuse and going to court.

In their study “The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women in Criminal Courts: Beyond the Victim-Victim Dichotomy” Alazne Aizpitarte, Josep Maria Tamarit-Zumalla, Patricia Hernández-Hidalgo and Laura Arantegui Arráez, researchers from the Criminal Justice System Group (VICRIM) at the UOC (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) to study how the self-perception of a group of 23 women living in Spain was shaped by their experience of suffering violence from their partner and their interaction with professionals in the justice system.

The process leading to revictimization

The experience of suffering from violence, fear and intimidation by a partner has a large impact on women’s self-perception. As a result, many suffer conflicting feelings, low self-esteem, and psychological difficulties that leave them visibly vulnerable, as becomes evident when they report abuse and have to deal with the legal process.

“It is important to understand that victims of gender-based violence have emotional baggage when they enter the criminal justice system,” explained Patricia Hernández-Hidalgo, member of the UOC Faculty of Law and Political Science, researcher of the VICRIM research group and co-author of the study.

“The experience of this system is not harmless to them because, as a result of their particular emotional vulnerability, they are at greater risk of being re-victimized by the system itself: many of them feel judged and questioned by the people working in this system. justice systems, they feel they are not believed, they do not understand how the process works or the information they are given, they feel they have to prove their version of events and that they have to fit into the profile of a weak, submissive and passive victim.”

“But at the same time, they are being told to confront the problem, end the relationship, be strong and move on.”

As she explains, the justice system plays a critical role in victimizing women who report their abusers. “At this point in the process, the system recognizes that the woman is a victim, and institutions tend to aim to guarantee their social, labor and economic rights in a paternalistic way.”

Women who go through these processes are often referred to as victims or survivors. The concept of victim is initially associated with adjectives with negative connotations, such as frail, weak, or dependent, while the concept of survivor has more positive connotations, such as empowerment or the ability to take control of one’s recovery. However, both concepts act as labels that hinder women’s recovery process and are key factors in their experience in the justice system and how they are viewed by society.

“In our study, we found that the dichotomy between victim and survivor is not enough to accommodate complex casuistry in these situations. What’s really interesting and important is to understand that the healing process is different for each victim, and that it’s important to move on and not get hung up on the role and label of the victim,” she said.

“This is what we should offer as a society to abused women, without labeling them, without condemning them, helping them at our own pace, taking into account their special circumstances and the position that each of them may occupy in terms of view of their situation and their experience.

Testimony of 23 women

The study is based on the experience of 23 women living in Spain who have suffered heterosexual violence and reported what happened to them. There are significant differences in their accounts regarding how they handled the process and their self-perceptions.

The results show the negative psychological impact that interacting with people working in the justice system often had on victims: “Many of them said they felt they were being interrogated, judged, or not listened to,” the study says. Similarly, there are some problems inherent in the judicial process (for example, related to the consequences of the presumption of innocence), while others arise from non-legal factors (such as prejudices arising from the patriarchal view of women as especially vulnerable and fragile). ).

According to the researchers, these narratives demonstrate the propensity of the justice system to reproduce the dynamics of social attribution of signs of victimization. “As a society, and as a result of the conceptual framework of the Spanish Organic Law 1/2004, we have an image of abused women as weak, vulnerable, passive women who need special protection. This is embodied in the vision of a ‘good victim’ who lives up to society’s expectations and is considered eligible for care and assistance services,” Hernandez-Hidalgo said.

“But what happens when the abused woman doesn’t fit that profile? What happens when she doesn’t look unkempt, or worn out, or weak, or well dressed and carefully made up when she comes to testify in court? the women we interviewed explained to us that because the description referred to them, their victim status was questioned, using phrases such as “you don’t fit the profile of a victim of gender-based violence.” These situations are undeniably unfortunate because of the additional psychological harm they inflict on these women, and they are the result of working on the basis of clichés and labels.”

Main conclusions

The main conclusion of the study is that a wide range of experiences cannot be limited by the victim-victim dichotomy and that in the criminal justice system the process of labeling based on clichés and preconceived ideas about what a “good victim” should be and how she should behave how very influential.

Systems based on this reductionist perspective are inadequate and insufficient to address the needs of women who have suffered or are suffering from gender-based violence, and also increase the risk of secondary victimization.

It has been shown that the positives for these women are being freed from their abuser, getting psychological help, and the passage of time. In most cases, they do not consider their experience during the trial to be useful. However, there are some strategies that can help make the justice system more receptive and responsive to such cases:

  • Conducting specialized training for specialists working in the justice system.
  • Creation of special professional services and positions to support, educate and train these women so that they can cope with the consequences of going through a trial.
  • Give them opportunities to actively participate in the litigation without feeling overwhelmed to help them feel empowered to handle the situation and strengthen their resolve.
  • Applying an approach to sentencing that addresses the harm caused by the offender rather than just punishing.

“One way to improve litigation is to go beyond the presumption of vulnerability in relation to the female sex and consider the real situation in each case. women as far as possible and lift the ban on criminal mediation, but leaving it open to cases where it is possible,” said Hernandez-Hidalgo.

The system could find significant support in the results of academic research in terms of improving this process and responding to societal demands. It would also be useful to evaluate existing interventions to determine whether they are useful and what aspects need to be changed.

“In short, we need to listen to women who experience gender-based violence to learn first-hand what their needs are, the challenges they face and aspects that can be improved in terms of providing them with care and assistance,” Hernandez concluded. . -Hidalgo.

Research published in the journal Victims and perpetrators.

Alazne Aizpitarte et al. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women in Criminal Courts: Beyond the Victim-Victim Dichotomy, Victims and perpetrators (2023). DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2022.2159904

Provided by Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

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Japanese company says spacecraft likely crashed on moon



The Japanese company’s spacecraft apparently crashed while trying to land on the Moon on Wednesday, losing contact minutes before landing, and flight controllers had a hard time figuring out what happened.

More than six hours after the communications blackout, Tokyo-based ispace finally confirmed what everyone suspected, saying there was a “high possibility” that the lander had crashed into the moon.

It was a disappointing setback for ispace, which, after a 4.5-month mission, was on the verge of what only three countries had managed to do: successfully land a spacecraft on the moon.

Takeshi Hakamada, founder and CEO of ispace, remained hopeful even after contact was lost as the lander descended the final 33 feet (10 meters). Air traffic controllers stared at their screens in Tokyo as the minutes ticked by and the moon was silent.

The grim-faced crew surrounded Khakamada as he announced that the landing had probably failed.

The official word finally came in a statement: “It has been determined that there is a high probability that the lander eventually made a hard landing on the lunar surface.”

Had all gone well, ispace would have been the first private business to land on the moon. Khakamada promised to try again, saying that a second moon shot was already in preparation for next year.

Only three governments have successfully landed on the Moon: Russia, the US and China. An Israeli non-profit organization attempted to land on the moon in 2019. but his spaceship was destroyed on impact.

“If space is hard, landing is harder,” Lori Leshin, director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, tweeted. “I know from personal experience how terrible it is.”

The 7-foot (2.3-meter) Japanese lander carried a mini-lunar rover for the United Arab Emirates and a toy robot from Japan, designed to ride in the moon dust for about 10 days.

Leshin worked on NASA’s Mars Polar lander, which crashed on the red planet in 1999.

The 7-foot (2.3-meter) Japanese lander carried a mini-lunar rover for the United Arab Emirates and a toy robot from Japan, designed to ride in the moon dust for about 10 days. This was how everything else in the mission should have continued.

The spacecraft, named “white rabbit” in Japanese, has targeted the Atlas crater in the northeastern part of the Moon’s near side, more than 50 miles (87 kilometers) in diameter and just over 1 mile (2 kilometers) deep.

He made a long detour to the moon, following December start, shining with photographs of the Earth along the way. The lander entered lunar orbit on March 21.

Flight controllers were able to determine that the lander was upright as it used its engines to decelerate during its last approach on Wednesday. According to ispace, engineers monitoring the fuel gauge noticed that as the tank approached empty, the lander picked up speed as it descended, after which communication was lost. That’s what makes them think the lander crashed.

ispace, founded in 2010, hopes to start turning a profit as a one-way taxi service to the moon for other businesses and organizations. The company has already raised $300 million to cover the first three missions, Khakamada said.

“We will continue, never stop the lunar search,” he said.

For this test flight, the government sponsored two major experiments: the UAE’s 22-pound (10-kilogram) Rashid rover, named after Dubai’s royal family, and the Japan Space Agency’s orange-sized sphere designed to transform into a wheeled robot on the Moon The UAE sought to spread its presence on the Moon, already in orbit around the Earth from astronaut aboard the International Space Stationand in orbit around Mars.

The moon suddenly becomes hot again, and many countries and private companies are demanding to join the lunar bandwagon. China successfully landed three spacecraft on the Moon since 2013, and the satellites of the United States, China, India and South Korea are currently orbiting the Moon.

NASA’s first test flight as part of its new Artemis lunar mission program has ended. moon and back at the end of last year, paving the way for four astronauts to follow by the end of next year, and two others who will actually land on the Moon a year after that. Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic Technology and Houston-based Intuitive Machines are gearing up to launch lunar landers later this year at NASA’s direction.

Hakuto and the Israeli spacecraft Beresheet have been shortlisted for the Google Lunar X Prize, which requires a successful moon landing by 2018. The top prize of $20 million remained unclaimed.

The Associated Press Department of Health and Science receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science and Education Media Group. AP is solely responsible for all content.

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Jupiter’s hot youth may have melted its icy moons



As a newborn planet, Jupiter shone brightly in the sky and eclipsed today’s sun from the perspective of the gas giant’s largest moons. This early glow and upcoming visits by several spacecraft could help solve a 40-year-old mystery about the composition of these moons.

For decades, scientists have been trying to understand the strange differences in density of Jupiter’s four Galilean moons, which, in order from closest to the planet to farthest, are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Although these natural satellites must have formed from the same source material and therefore have a similar composition, density measurements show that Callisto and Ganymede are much icier than Europa, and Io has no ice at all. disclosed At a conference last month, Carver Birson, a planetary scientist at Arizona State University, can shed some light on the subject.

Giant planets are formed by the merger and compression of huge volumes of gas and dust. This process releases a lot of excess energy and gives the newborn giants a literal youthful glow that can last for millions of years. This is more than a theory: astronomers regularly use this glow to image young giant exoplanets that would otherwise be lost in the glow of nearby stars. But the less glaring question of how such a glow could shape accompanying moons has been largely unexplored. In the case of Jupiter, computer simulations by Birson and colleagues suggest that the planet’s early glow illuminated its newborn moons and evaporated most of their water over a period of several million years.

“It gave people the opportunity to think about a completely new process,” says Francis Nimmo, who studies icy moons at the University of California, Santa Cruz and was not involved in the study.

Four satellites, one source

The differential compositions of the four Galilean moons have puzzled researchers for decades, ever since the first high-quality satellite density measurements were made. Locked inside Jupiter’s radiation belt and heated from within by the planet’s powerful tidal forces that knead the Moon’s interior like dough, Io is a completely ice-free world of hyperactive volcanoes. A little more distant Europe is also in the grip of the radiation and tides of Jupiter. But more modest levels of internal heating have given the Moon a subsurface ocean and icy crust, rather than lava-spewing calderas. Ganymede and Callisto are relatively inert, rich in ice, and much farther from Jupiter than Io and Europa.

Although the differences in Jupiter’s gravitational hold clearly explain some of the differences between the moons, planetary scientists were still trying to understand how these objects could have a common origin, yet be so different from each other. Just as planets form from spinning protoplanetary disks of gas and dust around nascent protostars, large moons can form from smaller mini-disks around gathering gas giant worlds. Current thinking calls for Jupiter to gain most of its mass very quickly, during the first 10 million years of the solar system’s life, before the light and stellar winds from the ever-brightening sun swept all the gas from the protoplanetary disk.

This relatively compressed timeline means that Jupiter would have had to greedily, quickly gulp gas to reach its current size, which would have caused it to heat up and glow, reaching a temperature estimated at 1,160 degrees Fahrenheit (627 degrees Celsius). For the Galilean moons, which supposedly formed around the same time as Jupiter itself, the planet would have shone like a star in the sky and overwhelmed the light coming from the more distant sun. By carefully modeling the effects of Jupiter’s increased luminosity on the Galilean moons, Birson and his colleagues found that this beam of light could clearly solve the riddle of today’s diverse satellite composition.

Composite image showing Jupiter’s four largest moons in order of increasing distance from the gas giant. From left to right: Io is closest, then Europa, then Ganymede, and finally Callisto. Credit: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

Fragrant fresh baked moons

Torn apart by Jupiter’s gravity, Io today is a hellish landscape of volcanic eruptions and is the most active body in the solar system. But the team found that Jupiter’s youthful glow may have originally given Io Earth’s temperatures and perhaps even the ocean. “I think it’s likely that either during Io’s formation or just after Io’s completion, there is some water on the surface,” Birson says.

That would change quickly, Birson said, as Io received about 30 times more energy from Jupiter than it receives from the Sun today. If Io had as much water as its cousin Ganymede currently holds, all that moisture would be quickly removed, and any remaining ocean would evaporate in the first million years of the moon’s existence.

Europa, further away than Io, would have had slightly cooler surface conditions – although they might still have been hot enough for this moon to lose a significant amount of its water. Farther away, on Ganymede, Jupiter would appear barely brighter than today’s Sun, a level of isolation without significant impact on lunar ice. The distant Callisto, sent to the outskirts of the Jupiter system, would not have been impressed by the radiant youth of Jupiter. (All of this assumes the moons were in their current positions. They probably formed closer before migrating to their current locations, however, this means the results of the study are probably only a lower limit on how much each moon was baked by Jupiter. .)

“The advantage of this hypothesis is that there are several tests that you can apply,” says Nimmo.

SOK-y offer

If Europa had lost most of its ice in its lifetime, rather than formed from less ice than its siblings, the remaining hydrogen and oxygen would have a different isotopic fingerprint than the ice on Ganymede and Callisto. Thus, an isotopic comparison of Europa with one or both of the most distant moons could finally reveal the truth about how these moons diverged from their common origin. “The more comparisons you can make [among the chemistries of the moons]the more you will understand how things will develop at this very early time,” says Birson.

This is quite an attractive proposition, given the recent launch of the European Space Agency’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission. Between 2031 and 2034, JUICE will make 35 flybys of Europa, Callisto and Ganymede before entering orbit around Ganymede. An extended tour can go a long way in determining whether all Galilean moons were born with the same amount of ice. JUICE has a mass spectrometer, which Nimmo says can make important measurements of hydrogen and water vapor that can come into space from moons, specifically Ganymede.

“The question is whether Ganymede provides enough material for the heights that JUICE can sample,” says Nimmo. He remains confident that this will be the case.

Even if JUICE research fails to crack the case, it won’t be the only moon-exploring spacecraft hovering in the Jupiter system. NASA’s Juno mission is already in orbit around the gas giant, and the space agency’s Europa Clipper mission is set to launch next year to travel to the mission’s moon of the same name. The Clipper data should provide a clear comparison of JUICE’s views of Europa’s ice that will be enough to extrapolate and distinguish from what a European spacecraft sees on Ganymede and possibly Callisto.

“Comparisons between moons will be extremely important,” Birson says. “It’s so exciting that JUICE and Europa Clipper will appear almost at the same time and maybe overlap a bit.”

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Water in the West: before and after satellite imagery shows snow boom per year, but…



As shown in the animation below, this was indeed a snow boom year in the western United States. This is especially true in water-stressed California and the mega-drought-hit Colorado River Basin, whose dwindling water is supporting a $1.4 trillion economy.

Before and after satellite images, one taken on April 8, 2022 by the NOAA-20 satellite and another taken on April 10, 2023 by the Suomi-NPP spacecraft, show a striking difference in snow cover in the mountains of the American West. . Snow cover is now much higher than average almost everywhere. (Source: images from NASA Worldview, animation by Tom Yulsman)

Incredible snow cover in California’s Sierra Nevada continues to make headlines, especially as heat builds up. threatens to meltraising the already high risk of flooding. As of April 26, snowpack levels across the Sierra Nevada were over 200 percent of the average for that date. In the southern part of the Sierra, this figure exceeded 300 percent of the average.

These numbers are not uncommon. right now in the western US, as shown on this map:

Credit: USDA/NRCS National Water and Climate Center.

All these blues and greens show where the snow cover is above average.

The abundance of snow in the mountains of the Colorado River Basin is a relief to the 40 million people in the seven states, Mexico and the numerous Indian tribes that depend on its waters. Two large reservoirs, Lake Powell and Lake Mead, which were needed to meet their water needs, have dropped to record lows. The water level in other reservoirs of the basin dropped sharply.


But now the snow cover gives hope that a further decline can be avoided – at least in the upcoming warm season. Based current forecaststhe reservoir for the basin as a whole will be filled to approximately 44 percent capacity on 30 September, at the end water year 2023. This is more than 33 percent at the beginning of the water year in October. January 1, 2022. Some good news for a change, but almost certainly not in the long run.

Satellite images of the Colorado Rockies before and after, the first image was taken on April 4, 2022, and the second on April 16 this year. (Source: images from NASA Worldview, animation by Tom Yulsman)

“This winter’s snow cover is promising and gives us an opportunity to help replenish Lakes Mead and Powell in the near term, but the reality is that drought conditions in the Colorado River Basin have been in place for more than two decades,” the US Bureau said. Land Reclamation Commissioner Camilla Kalimlim Tuton, in statements.

Recent Research shows that the region has suffered from the worst drought in the region for at least 1200 years. In the study, just over 40 percent of its severity was attributed to human-caused climate change, mostly due to rising temperatures that caused increased aridity.

As Touton points out, “despite welcome snow this year, the Colorado River system remains under threat from the ongoing effects of the climate crisis.”

Landsat-8 images of the upper Colorado River show a dramatic difference in snow cover between April 2022 and 2023. In both images, bodies of water are artificially tinted blue to make them stand out. (Source: Images via Sentinel Hub, animation by Tom Yulsman)

Assuming that this year’s abundance of snow results in expected runoff into streams and rivers – which isn’t really a given – it would give politicians a little more time to make some very difficult decisions about how to deal with the inevitable fact that much more water is being used. for agriculture, industry and municipal needs than flows in the Colorado River. That is why Lake Mead and Powell have shrunk to record lows. And thanks to the climate crisis, the flow deficit is unlikely to be eliminated in the long term.

This long-term perspective is associated with rising temperatures due to the rising concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which continue to their historically high growth rates in 2022, according to NOAA scientists.

“The bottom line is that to see any reduction in CO2 growth rates, emissions reductions need to be sustained and significant,” says Arlene Andrews, head of NOAA’s greenhouse gas emissions team.

Right now, we’re nowhere near seeing a reduction in emissions. Vice versa. In 2022, global energy-related CO2 emissions rose by 0.9 percent, according to the International Energy Agencyreaching a record level of almost 37 billion tons.

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