Connect with us


Morris Tanenbaum, inventor of the silicon microchip, dies at 94



Morris Tanenbaum

Inventor of silicon chips

guy, 94; died February 26

Tanenbaum’s research in the mid-1950s proved that silicon was a better semiconductor material for transistors than germanium, which was widely used at the time. His discovery paved the way for more efficient transistors, crucial to the technology that ushered in the information age.

He began his career in 1952. Bell Labs, in Murray Hill, New Jersey, as a Research Fellow in the Department of Chemical Physics. Two years later, under the guidance of physicist and inventor William Shockley, then at Bell Labs, Tanenbaum began to investigate whether silicon crystals could be used to make transistors.

In 1955, he and his colleague Ernest Buehler demonstrated the first silicon transistor.

Tanenbaum later developed the first silicon gas diffusion transistor that could amplify and switch signals above 100 megahertz at a switching speed 10 times faster than previous silicon transistors.

Despite Tanenbaum’s early work on silicon transistors, AT&T did not support further research or advancement of the technology. At the time, Bell Labs was the research arm of AT&T. Although Bell Labs had “a significant technological advantage in silicon transistor technology, it stopped doing proper research in this area—in part because it simply wasn’t directly related to AT&T’s business—so silicon transistor technology, including integrated circuits, was developed by the company. information another Texas Instruments instead,” Tanenbaum said in 1999. oral history held IEEE History Center.

Instead, Tanenbaum worked on other new technologies in the following decades. In 1962, he was appointed Associate Director of the Metallurgical Division of Bell Labs. There he led the team that created the first high-field superconducting magnets, which are now used in MRI machines and other medical imaging technologies. He later helped develop optical fiber and digital telephone switching.

Tanenbaum continued to serve as president of AT&T New Jersey Bell (now part Verizon) in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

He was appointed president AT&T communications in 1984. Five years later, he stepped down as vice chairman and chief financial officer of AT&T.

Member American Academy of Arts and Scienceshe was also a member American Physical Society and member MIT board of trustees.

In 1949 he received a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore, and received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Princeton.

Adolf Goetzberger

Pioneer of photovoltaics

Lifetime comrade, 94; died February 24

Goetzberger was an early proponent of solar energy technology. Today solar energy third largest renewable electricity sector after hydropower and wind.

Together with physicist Armin Zastrow, he developed the concept agrovoltaics– use of land for both agriculture and solar energy production.

After receiving his doctorate in physics in 1955, Ludwig Maximilian Universityjoined the Munich Goetzberger Siemens, a multinational conglomerate, i.e. in Munich. He then moved to the United States in 1958 to work as a senior fellow at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratoryin Palo Alto, California.

After five years at Shockley, he left to join Bell Labsin Murray Hill, New Jersey, where he did research on metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. He returned to Germany in 1968 and became director Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), in Freiburg. Three years later, while working at the IAF, he was awarded the title of honorary professor Freiburg University department of physics.

In 1981 Goetzberger founded Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)– currently Europe’s largest research institute for solar energy – also in Freiburg. That same year, he and Zastrow introduced an agro-electric concept in which solar panels are installed over greenhouses or over field crops to maximize land use. As of 2021, agro-electric systems were capable of producing more than 14 gigawatts of electricity, according to an ISE estimate.

In the early 1980s, Goetzberger pioneered research into fluorescent planar collector concentrators, using photovoltaic (PV) material mixed with fluorescent dyes to separate different wavelengths of light and convert them using solar cells with different band gaps. The research paved the way for more efficient solar energy production. Under Goetzberger’s leadership, ISE developed the first high-efficiency all-electronic inverter for off-grid photovoltaic systems.

Goetzberger was director of the ISE until his retirement in 1993. German Solar Energy Society (DGS)from 1993 to 1997. Based in Berlin, DGS supports the integration of solar technology and renewable energy into the grid.

He co-authored the seminal 2005 textbook. Photovoltaic solar energy.

Goetzberger, holder of over 30 patents in Europe, was awarded Lifetime Achievement Award from European Patent Office in 2009. In 1997 he received three prestigious awards: Carl Boer Solar Meritorious Service Medal from International Solar Energy Society, Becquerel Prize from European CommissionAnd Cherry Awards from IEEE Electronic Device Society. IEEE EDS also honored him with their award in 1983. Ebers Prize for the development of the silicon field-effect transistor, which uses an electric field to control the flow of current in a semiconductor. Goetzberger was the first German to receive this honor.

Peter Sauer

2022 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award Winner

LifeFellow, 75; died December 27

what a sour professor of electrical and computer engineering V University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, where he taught courses and directed research in the field of power systems.

He got 2022 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award “for contributions to dynamic modeling and simulation of synchronous generators, and for leadership in the field of energy education.”

Sour served in USAF as an electrical engineer, designed and built airfield lighting and electrical distribution systems in Langley Air Force Base, in Va. He left active duty in 1973 but continued to serve in Air Force reserves for nearly three decades, retiring in 1998 with the rank of lieutenant colonel.

He joined the University of Illinois in 1977 as a professor. His research there focused on how to improve the stability of power supply systems through large-scale simulations.

In 1991 and 1992 he worked as a program director for energy systems in National Science Foundationdivision of electrical and communication systems.

In 1996 he co-founded power world, a power systems information and analysis company based in Champaign, Illinois. Transmission planners and system operators use the company’s PowerWorld Simulator, a suite of interactive software tools, to simulate power system operation under various conditions. He retired in 2019.

Sauer, member National Academy of Engineeringwrote Energy System Dynamics and Stabilityand he has authored or co-authored over 200 technical articles.

He received IEEE Energy and Energy SocietyLifetime Achievement Award in 2020 “for exceptional long-term contributions to the modeling and dynamic analysis of energy systems, and for leadership in the field of energy education.”

After receiving a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering in 1969 from the University of Missouri at Rolle (now Missouri University of Science and Technology), he went on to earn master’s and doctoral degrees in EE from Purdue Universityin West Lafayette, Indiana in 1974 and 1977 respectively.

Robert W. “Bob” Lawson

Telecommunications engineer

senior member, 89; died November 18

Lawson worked for Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania (now part of AT&T) in Pittsburgh for 35 years. He rose through the ranks and retired in 1988 as a member of the executive team.

During the Korean War he served in US Navy as a cryptological technician specializing in airborne, shipborne and ground-based radar signals.

He began his civilian career in 1953 as a telephone installer for Bell. He was also attending night school at the time. University of Pennsylvaniain Philadelphia, where he received an associate engineering degree in 1963.

After leaving Bell in 1988, he began working with the US government as a telecommunications contractor. He also worked for several years as an engineer for an IT services company. Unisis in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania. He then became a consultant; his main client was Philippine long distance telephone company. (now PLDT) in Makati. He retired from consulting in 1998.

Lawson enjoyed playing billiards, flying kites, singing, playing golf, and helping his neighbors solve technical problems.


Randomly bouncing planets could be a sign of advanced aliens



Are strange star systems waiting to be discovered?

Yurik Peter/Shutterstock

Planets that orbit at very close distances from their stars can compete for position, remaining in a generally stable configuration for billions of years – long enough to be detected by astronomers. Such star systems may be so unlikely that they can only be created by artificially advanced alien civilizations.

Most planets have their own orbits, but orbital mechanics allows worlds to be close enough to effectively share an orbit, forcing them into a chaotic dance where they…

Continue Reading


Here’s What Caused the Biggest Space Explosion Ever Seen



IJust last October, telescopes detected a gamma-ray burst caused by a black hole collapse that was so powerful. astronomers quickly dubbed it the BOAT, for “Brightest of All Time”. It was a fitting enough nickname for such a sensational outburst, at least not for long. But the BOAT has just been knocked out in second place in terms of power.

According to the new study published V Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices a new champion has arrived: the cosmic blast known as AT2021lwx. The explosion, located 8 billion light-years from Earth, has been erupting for three years now, emitting two trillion times the light of our Sun and 10 times the energy of the brightest supernova ever observed.

The very existence of such a formation, never before observed by astronomers, is further evidence that there are completely new kinds of astronomical phenomena that have yet to be discovered. Where there is one AT2021lwx, there may be others – and even more objects not yet imagined, much less seen.

“AT2021lwx is an extraordinary event that does not fit into any general class of transients. [or stellar eruptions]”, wrote the research team. “Further observations and simulations of AT2021lwx are needed to learn more about the scenario that caused the outbreak.”

The eruption was initially spotted by telescopes at the California Institute of Technology. Zwicky Detention Center in 2020, and at first astronomers thought they might witness quasar, an eruption that occurs when gas and dust fall into a supermassive black hole. But quasars tend to fluctuate in energy and brightness, while AT2021lwx turned on its far beams and kept them bright and stable since its discovery.

“At a quasar, we see how its brightness fluctuates up and down over time,” Professor Mark Sullivan of the University of Southampton, co-author of the paper, said in his paper. Royal Astronomical Society Statement. “But looking back over a decade, AT2021lwx was not discovered and then it suddenly emerged as one of the brightest things in the universe, which is unprecedented.”

The next best guess was a supernova, but the light from such stellar explosions usually lasts for months, not years. Further observations were made Last Asteroid Earth Impact Alert System (ATLAS) in Hawaii, which usually scans the skies for dangerous near-Earth objects, but can also make long-range observations by joining the Zwicky Center in an attempt to understand what astronomers have seen.

Since a quasar and a supernova are ruled out, the authors of the paper, led by astronomer Philip Wiseman of the University of Southampton, turned to so-called tidal disruption. This is when a star is pulled into the mouth of a black hole and crushed in the process. But AT2021lwx also had this rhythm, emitting three times as much light as any tidal disruption ever seen, and also lasting much longer.

“We stumbled upon this by accident as our search algorithm flagged it when we were looking for a type of supernova,” Wiseman said in a statement. “Most supernova and tidal disruption events only last a couple of months before disappearing. It was very unusual for something to be bright for more than two years at once.”

read more: Maybe the Universe Thinks. Listen to me

More telescopes are still connected to study AT2021lwx, including NASA’s orbiting telescope. Neil Gerel Swift Observatory, new technology telescope in Chile and Telescope Gran Canaria in La Palma, Spain. With these instruments making their own observations, and ruling out other alternatives, Wiseman and his colleagues concluded that the bright, steady light of AT2021lwx is caused by a massive cloud of gas many thousands of times the size of our Sun. which orbited the black hole and was somehow destroyed – astronomers do not yet know exactly how – causing gas to enter the hole. They estimate that the entire formation is 100 times the size of our solar system and is currently radiating 100 times more energy than the Sun has emitted in its entire 10 billion years of life. It is not known how long it will continue to burn, but its light still streams in our direction.

Wiseman’s team hasn’t finished studying AT2021lwx yet. V Vera Rubin’s Legacy Space and Time Observatory Researchin Chile should go online in the next few years, and astronomers will point the way for this AT2021lwx telescope elsewhere.

“We hope to find more of these events and learn more about them,” says Wiseman. “Perhaps these events, although extremely rare, are so energetic that they are key elements in how the centers of galaxies change over time.” This fact concerns close to home: our own Milky Way has a supermassive a black hole resting at its center.

More must-read content from TIME

Write Jeffrey Kluger at

Continue Reading


The Swiss village of Brienz was evacuated due to the danger of an imminent collapse



The village of Brienz and its church at the foot of a rockfall.

All residents of the tiny Swiss village were evacuated due to the danger of imminent rockfall.

Less than 100 residents of Brienz were given just 48 hours to gather what they could and leave their homes.

Even dairy cows were loaded for departure after geologists warned that a rockfall was imminent.

Two million cubic meters of rock falls from the mountain above, and a rockfall can wipe out a village.

The development has raised questions about the safety of some mountain communities as global warming changes the alpine environment.

Rock has been shifting since the Ice Age, but scientists say the pace has accelerated.

Brienz in the eastern canton of Graubünden is now empty.

The village has been considered geologically hazardous for some time and is built on land that slopes down towards the valley, causing the church’s spire to tilt and large cracks to appear in the buildings.

Brienz village in front of the rockfall area

Some stones have already fallen from the mountainside

View of a crack in a building in the village of Brienz.

View of a crack in a building in the village of Brienz.

As the minutes ticked by, approaching the deadline for departure, even Brienz’s dairy cows were led to safety.

Residents, some young, some old, families, farmers and professional couples, were given two days to leave their homes.

Earlier this week they were asked to evacuate the village by Friday evening.

A man takes a photo of Renato Lisch, a resident of Brienz/Brinzaul under 'Brienzerrutsch' who is leaving while the village is being evacuated

Renato Lisch, a resident of Brienz, is photographed under a village sign before leaving home.


Mountainside on a Friday when all the villages were asked to leave their homes

Switzerland’s Alpine regions are especially sensitive to global warming – as the permafrost high in the mountains begins to melt, the rocks become more unstable.

This particular mountain has always been unstable, but lately the rock has been shifting faster and faster.

Scientists have warned that two million cubic meters of loose rock could fall from the side of the mountain over the village in a few days of heavy rains.

Villagers must now wait in makeshift dwellings for the rock to fall and hope it doesn’t hit their homes.

Checkpoint in front of the village of Brienz

Checkpoint in front of the village of Brienz.

Continue Reading