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Tuberculosis (TB) Quick Facts | CNN




Here look at tuberculosis (also known as tuberculosis), an infection caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs. It can also affect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine, and brain.

There are two types of tuberculosis – Latent tuberculosis infection (non-infectious) and tuberculosis disease (infectious).

Latent tuberculosis infection:
A person infected with latent TB has no symptoms and may not feel sick.
– A skin or blood test will show if a person is infected with bacteria.
– TB bacteria are not transmitted from an infected person to other people.
– Individuals with latent TB may never develop the disease because the bacteria remain dormant. In other cases, especially in people with weak immune systems, the bacteria can become active and cause TB.
– Treatment is necessary to prevent an infected person from developing active TB, but in some cases preventive treatment may not be possible.
– Without treatment, about 5-10% of people infected with latent TB will develop the disease.

tuberculosis disease:
– Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis include coughing up blood and chest pain.
– Other symptoms include weight loss, night sweats, fever, chills and fatigue.
– TB bacteria can be passed from an infected person to other people.
– A skin or blood test will show if a person is infected with bacteria.
– Treatment usually involves a combination of drugs taken for six months.
– People with weak immune systems, such as those with HIV or diabetes, are more likely to get TB.

TB is spread through the air when a person with active TB coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings. Microbes can stay in the air for hours.

In 2021, around 10.6 million people fell ill with TB worldwide, and 1.6 million people died (including 187,000 people living with HIV).

IN In 2022, a total of 83,000 new cases of TB were reported in the US.

Up to 13 million people in the United States are living with latent TB.

1546 – Italian scientist Girolamo Fracastoro suggests that tuberculosis is contagious.

1679- Dutch scientist Francis Silvius describes in detail the impact of tuberculosis on patients.

1865 – French military doctor Jean-Antoine Villemain proves that the disease can be transmitted from person to animal or from animal to animal.

1882 – German physician Robert Koch identifies the bacterial strain as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

1800s – Tuberculosis was responsible for a quarter of all deaths in Europe in the 19th century. Notable people who die of tuberculosis include John Keats, Frederic Chopin, Charlotte, Emily and Anna Bronte, Anton Chekhov and Franz Kafka.

1921 – After years of animal testing, French bacteriologists Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin successfully administer a vaccine called Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to a child whose mother has died of tuberculosis.

1930- In Germany, more than 70 babies who received the BCG vaccine die of tuberculosis. It is later concluded that the vaccine was contaminated in the laboratory.

1944 – Microbiologist Zelman A. Waksman and colleagues at Rutgers University report on Discovery of a new antibiotic called streptomycin.

1944 – Physicians H. Corwin Hinshaw, Carl H. Pfuetze, and William H. Feldman successfully use streptomycin to treat a patient with tuberculosis.

1952- A scientific journal publishes research that heralds the success of a revolutionary treatment called isoniazid.

1985-1992 Tuberculosis is on the rise. Scientists attribute this to several factors, including the spread of HIV.

1994The World Health Organization declares tuberculosis a global emergency.

1995- WHO launches Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS). It is a five-component treatment plan, including standardized registration and reporting.

2008- WHO reports the highest rates of MDR-TB worldwide.

December 8, 2010 – WHO approves new test that diagnoses TB in hours instead of months.

2018 – A promising new vaccine called M72/AS01E has been shown to be effective in many people already infected with TB.

2021 – The study concluded that a four-month multi-drug regimen for TB was as effective as a six-month regimen.


Archdiocese of Chicago Clergy Search in Illinois, Georgia Abuse Report



Illinois investigators on Tuesday released the names and details of 451 Catholic priests and religious brothers who abused at least 1,997 children across all of Illinois’ dioceses.

An investigation found that Catholic leaders in Illinois vastly underreported clergy sexual abuse of children, finding that “decades of Catholic leadership decisions and policies have allowed known perpetrators of child sexual abuse to hide, often in plain sight,” according to the 700-page report.

Prior to the investigation, Catholic leaders in Illinois had publicly listed only 103 confirmed child sex offenders, meaning several hundred more perpetrators were uncovered in a statewide investigation into clerical sexual abuse that began in 2018, according to Prosecutor General’s Office.

The following are the names listed in the Archdiocese of Chicago report.

According to the report, the following section contains specific information about confirmed cases of child sexual abuse committed by more than 270 Catholic clergy and religious brothers who served in the Archdiocese of Chicago.

This report contains descriptions of child sexual abuse, assault, and trauma. Resources for victims of child sexual abuse can be found on page 689 of the report.

Key to categories

  • Surname: The name of the confirmed clergyman or religious brother, the year of his ordination, and the diocese or religious order in which he was ordained or tonsured.
  • Tasks: Parishes of Illinois and related places of worship to which a clergyman or religious brother was assigned while serving in Illinois, as reported by the diocese or religious order.
  • Survivors reported: The number of survivors who reported child sexual abuse against a clergyman or religious brother, as reported by the diocese or religious order and/or as listed in a criminal record.
  • Claimed abuse: Date and location of reported incidents of child sexual abuse committed by a clergyman or religious brother, as reported by the diocese or religious order and/or as identified in the conviction records.
  • Status: Significant actions concerning the clergyman or religious brother and his current status. Also includes the date that the identified diocese or religious order included the clergyman or religious brother on their public list of confirmed child sexual abuse.

sources: Illinois Attorney General’s Office, Report on Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Illinois, 2023

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Are Vanessa and Xander still together?



Ultimatum: strange love is a Netflix series, half dating show, half social experiment. It involves five couples, and in each couple, one partner gave the other an ultimatum to continue the relationship and get married. Each couple then “breaks up” and they meet other actors for a week before choosing one person for a trial marriage. After three weeks of living together, each person then returns to their original partner for three weeks before deciding whether they want to stay with him, start a new relationship with their trial partner, or become single.

Each of the couples have different reasons for being on the show, from not being ready for marriage to not knowing if their partner really has what they need for a lifetime partnership. For Vanessa and Xander, their conflict is that Xander wants marriage and children, while Vanessa isn’t sure she wants to settle down and instead yearns for freedom.

Their personalities are also very different, as Xander is a little quieter and Vanessa likes to be the center of attention. And while the old adage “opposites attract” has kept their relationship going for four years, it looks like they both may be on the verge of breaking up.

When the experiment began, Vanessa expressed great excitement at the thought of dating different people, and she willingly began to connect with each of them. She has formed strong bonds with Lexie and Rae, who are exes, and while it seemed like she and Lexie were on the verge of moving forward, after Vanessa commented that she still doesn’t know if she wants something serious, well then revealed that she didn’t believe Xander would connect, Lexi questioned her reasons for being there, and their date ended on a sour note when Lexi told the cameras that she never wanted to see her again.

So what does this mean for Vanessa and Xander? Here’s what you need to know.

Vanessa and Xander from Ultimatum: strange love Are you still together?


Soon after Vanessa and Lexi’s date, it’s time for all the singles to choose their new partners. Vanessa and Rae ended up choosing each other, but Lexie turned to her ex with an impassioned plea in which she revealed that she didn’t think Vanessa was on the show for the right reasons, and in her confession, she bluntly stated that Vanessa just wants to be famous The other members of the cast agreed, with Mildred even calling out Vanessa for saying “fuck off” to Xander across the table. Vanessa and Ray decided to move forward anyway, and their relationship seemed to be going well.

However, at the end of the fourth episode, Ray told Lexi that she and Vanessa slept together, which angered Lexi. At the next group event, the cast split into two groups and Lexi ran into Vanessa, who then confessed that she had no romantic intentions with Rae. At another group event, Ray confessed to Mal and she said that she believed Xander was unaware of the incident. The episode ended with a cliffhanger, but in previews for the rest of the season, Xander appears to be torn between his new partner Yoli and Vanessa. The next batch of episodes will premiere on May 31st, so we’ll have to wait until then to see if the longtime couple can handle it.

preview for Stranger Things star Caleb McLaughlin's workout to get into NBA uniform |  Train Like |  Men's health
Headshot by Temi Adebovale

Temi Adebowale was previously an associate editor at Men’s Health covering shows such as Survivor, Peaky Blinders and Tiger King. Prior to working in entertainment at MH, she was a News Research Fellow writing news for Hearst Digital Media brands. They like Rihanna, StairMaster and tacos.

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Man with paralysis can walk by activating spinal implants with his brain



Gert-Jan Oskam walks with brain and spine implants and a backpack computer.

CHUV 2022/WEBER Gilles

A Dutchman who was paralyzed after breaking his neck can now walk on crutches after having an implant that allows his brain to send signals to his spine via a computer in his backpack.

Gert-Jan Oskam, 40, can now get up from a seated position, climb stairs and walk on uneven ground. “The stimulation will start as soon as I think about [taking] step, he says.

Oskar also found that even when the device was turned off, he could walk short distances using a wheeled walker. Gregoire Curtin from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Geneva and his colleagues who developed the technology believe this may be because repetitive exercise stimulates the growth of nerve cells in the spine.

The brain implants are contained in two 5cm discs that rest on the surface of the brain, replacing two circles of bone taken from the skull. They communicate wirelessly with a helmet-style receiver that sends signals to a backpack computer. The computer then sends signals to stimulators inserted in Oscar’s spinal cord, which cause the leg muscles to move.

The system is an upgrade from the first version Oskam received five years ago that used only spinal electrodes. In this version, Oscar activated each step by making a small movement with his heel, which he could do because the accident hadn’t completely severed his spinal cord. Heel movements were detected by light motion sensors, and this caused the spinal implants to trigger semi-automatic stepping movements coordinated by networks of neurons in the lower spinal cord.

The resulting steps allowed Oskam to walk on level ground using wheeled walkers. “It was more like the walking motion of a robot,” Cortin says.

In 2021, Oskam received an upgraded brain implant. A few minutes after the operation, he was able to walk and this resulted in more natural movements. “It can regulate when the stimulation kicks in and how much. This makes the movement very smooth,” says Guillaume Charvet at the University of Grenoble-Alpes in France, another member of the team.

“Before, stimulation controlled me, but now I control stimulation with my thoughts,” Oscar says.

The brain-driven system also results in a wider variety of hip, knee, and ankle movements. Henri Lorach, member of the EPFL team. “He can access multiple functions.”

So far, a total of nine people have received single spinal implants by controlling their movements either with small residual leg movements, as Oscar did, or by pressing buttons on walkers. Some may now have an update.

The team also has permission to try the same approach to restore arm movement in people who are paralyzed from the neck down.

“This is great work,” he says. Zubair Ahmed at the University of Birmingham, UK. “What’s great is that they tie a lot of technology together.”

However, the system is still in the early stages of development and would be too expensive to be widely used for other people with spinal cord injuries, he says.


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